Date added: 11 Aug 2016
George III was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, when it became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. He was concurrently Duke and Prince-Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire until his promotion to King of Hanover on 12 October 1814.
The Kingdom of Hanover (German: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It joined with 38 other sovereign states in the German Confederation in June 1815. The new kingdom was also greatly expanded, becoming the fourth-largest state in the German Confederation (behind Prussia, Austria and Bavaria) and the second-largest in north Germany.
The kingdom was ruled by the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph), in personal union with the United Kingdom until 1837.
In January 1814, 30 militia battalions were formed and all NCO’s and men from the former Hanoverian Army were required for duty in the militia. From 1 February 1814 the Hanoverians were no longer regarded as being part of the British Army and started to carry their own emblems on their flags. On February 1815 all field and militia battalions were combined into 10 regiments.
Hanover provided a substantial part of the Anglo-Allied infantry at Waterloo – over seventeen battalions in five brigades, plus three regiments of cavalry and two batteries of guns; this contingent of 13,490 men (excluding the Hanoverians of King’s German Legion) was equivalent to 21% of the total infantry and 17% of the overall total. The uniforms were very similar to the KGL, with field officers and sergeants wearing yellow sashes round their waists rather than the British crimson.
Hanover Waterloo Medal
This medal was founded by George, the Prince Regent in December 1817, and was awarded to every soldier who was present in the Hanoverian Army at the Battle of Waterloo. It is suspended by a crimson ribbon with light blue borders, and the owner was permitted to wear this ribbon without the medal, contrary to the rule which prevailed in Britain.
Like the British Waterloo Medal, it has a profile and laureate head of the Prince Regent to the right, with the legend GEORG. PRINZ. REGENT, 1815, round it. On the reverse are two branches of laurel and a breastplate, with two spears and two colours crossed on either side; underneath is the date, WATERLOO JUN. XVIII., and, above, in Roman letters, HANNOVER SCHER TAPFERKEIT. Round the rim are the soldier's name, regiment, etc.
The illustrated Hannover Waterloo Medal awarded to Lieutenant Ludwig Schwenke, Landwehr Battalion Muenden, wounded at Waterloo 18 June 1815.